Background & Genesis
Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) was recognized as integral part of sustainable development at UN Earth Summit at Rio (1992). Around 150 countries have initiated Criteria & Indicators (C&I) approach for SFM as part of one or the other internationally recognized nine processes.
Table 1: Summary of nine C&I initiatives/processes
The Dry Zone Asia Initiative evolved in 1999 with participation from nine Asian countries viz. Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand and was held at Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM), Bhopal. As an offshoot of this Initiative and to develop a national set of Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in India, the Bhopal-India (BI) Process was started at IIFM under aegis of Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. Thus, Bhopal-India process has semblance with internationally recognized processes specifically the Dry Zone Asia and International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) initiatives on SFM.
United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) in 2006 and later in the year 2017 at UNFF special session arrived at six global forest goals which emphasized on increasing area and the proportion of forest products derived from sustainably managed forests. The global goals are 1) Reverse the loss of forest cover worldwide through sustainable forest management, including protection, restoration, afforestation and reforestation, and increase efforts to prevent forest degradation and contribute to the global effort of addressing climate change; 2) Enhance forest-based economic, social and environmental benefits, including by improving the livelihoods of forest dependent people; 3) Increase significantly the area of protected forests worldwide and other areas of sustainably managed forests, as well as the proportion of forest products from sustainably managed forests; 4) Mobilize significantly increased, new and additional financial resources from all sources for the implementation of sustainable forest management and strengthen scientific and technical cooperation and partnerships; 5) Promote governance frameworks to implement sustainable forest management, including through the UN Forest Instrument, and enhance the contribution of forests to the 2030 Agenda; and 6) Enhance cooperation, coordination, coherence and synergies on forest-related issues at all levels, including within the UN System and across Collaborative Partnership on Forests member organizations, as well as across sectors and relevant stakeholders.
The Government of India constituted a "Task Force" on SFM for developing modalities to adapt this approach. The task force recognized 8 criteria and associated indicators developed under Bhopal-India Process as the National set of C&I for SFM in 2000. These draft national set of criteria and indicators for SFM were later pilot tested in six forest divisions in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
The National Forestry Commission in 2006 recommended creating enabling environment to facilitate periodic assessment, monitoring the changes and reporting on national level criteria & indicators. The commission also emphasized on the need to develop Minimum Acceptable Standards (MAS) for SFM. The Government of India established "SFM Cell" in the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC). The SFM approach was recognized as a thrust area in the XI Five-Year Plan (2012-17).
The 8 criteria and 37 indicators for SFM have been further refined and are included in the New National Working Plan Code 2014 by the MoEFCC, Government of India for sustainable management of forests and conservation of biodiversity in the country.
Also, the Government of India constituted a "Task Force on Initiating Forest Certification in India" under the Chairmanship of the Director General of Forests & Special Secretary MoEFCC, GoI in 2004. This task force constituted a National Forest Certification Committee in Oct 2007 to suggest a framework for initiating Forest Certification in India. The task force recommended establishment of an Indian Forest certification Council in line with other countries like Malaysia, Brazil, Chile etc. The centre of SFM&FC at IIFM provided key inputs for task force as well as the national committee.
In the backdrop of these developments at the national level and the growing awareness about sustainable forest management & forest certification at global level and the increasing demand for legally sourced & certified timber in developed markets, IIFM decided to set up the Centre for Sustainable Forest Management & Forest Certification (SFM & FC) in February 2006. The centre is mandated to generate pool of knowledge and understanding in the field of Stainable Forest Management & Forest Certification help develop forestry sector in the country.
The mission of the centre is to integrate, strengthen, and redirect the centre's forestry research, education, and outreach to address the sustainability needs of the 21st century in a globalized environment. The centre fosters leadership through innovative programs, activities, and research to support sustainable forest management and forest certification.
The broad goals of the centre are
- Strengthen sustainable forest management
- Support forest certification
- Promote sustainable business; sustainable production and sustainable consumption
Manmohan Yadav PhD
Associate Professor, Marketing Area &
Coordinator - Centre for SFM and Forest Certification
Indian Institute of Forest Management
Nehru Nagar, Bhopal - 462003. INDIA
Mobile: 9424413670; Email - firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com
Objectives of the Centre
To serve the sector by undertaking and coordinating academic activities pertaining to forest products marketing, SFM, forest certification and related aspects.
Publication and dissemination of technical documents.
To provide inputs for policy making and work as 'Think-Tank' (knowledge base).
To help develop a framework for a national forest certification scheme for the country in consultation with various stakeholders and work towards its mutual recognition from the international schemes.
To act as resource center for the Government of India, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change; state Forest Departments, Forest corporations / Federations; Academic institutions, Non-Government sectors; and the Business organizations for capacity building for SFM and forest certification.
Thematic areas of centre activities
The concept of sustainable forest management and forest certification are gaining importance in forestry sector in the country. The forests are managed on the prescriptions of the working plan formulated as per national working plan code (WPC) 2014 and duly approved by the state and national competent authority. The WPC 2014 has incorporated all 8 criteria and 37 Indicators of Bhopal-India process and thus the country has mandated itself to achieve its commitments under various international agreements including ITTO objective 2000 and UNFF Non-legally-binding goals as well as facilitation to the Industry sourcing raw material from the forestry sector to meet international trade regulations.
In order to appreciate the understanding and application of these new aspects in the Indian forestry management scenario it is imperative to build capacity of different stakeholders. Thus this activity has been identified as one of the thrust areas of the centre.
Research & documentation
Under the aegis of centre for SFM & FC, research will be conducted to provide policy inputs to the Central & State Governments. India provides a unique opportunity and has substantial area under the natural forest and plantation. The development of standards for forest certification for various components of forest will be undertaken in consultation with various stakeholders and work towards its mutual recognition from international schemes.
The center has identified dissemination of information on forest certification and tools and techniques available for the sustainable forest management in field as well as the curricula in graduation and post-graduation level courses where the forestry is being taught. The publication of articles and technical documents on SFM and forest certification has been undertaken as one of key activity to disseminate the knowledge generated through research.
The center at IIFM will provide four-pronged network between Central Government; State Government; Research & Academic institutions; and International organizations. The centre will be a pivot for sharing and dissemination of information of SFM and FC through a worldwide network of researchers, academic and research institutes, policy makers, community networks, non-government organizations for facilitating work for bringing professionalism in forestry sector.
Books / Monograph
- Yadav, Manmohan 2016. Handbook on Forest Certification. Published by TERI Press, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi, INDIA. ISBN 978-81-7993-300-8. Details
- Yadav, Manmohan 2013. Forest Certification: Sustaining Forestry in India. Centre for SFM&FC, Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal, INDIA. ISBN 978-81-7969-078-9. Details
- Indu Kumari and Manmohan Yadav 2011. Dependence of Forest Villagers on NWFP Collection: A Study of Dependence of Forest Villagers on Non-Wood Forest, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, p. 140 (ISBN-10: 3845434899, ISBN-13: 978-3845434896). Details
- Yadav, Manmohan; PC Kotwal and BL Menaria. 2007. Forest Certification: A Tool for Sustainable Forest Management. ISBN: 81-7969-047-4. Pages 1-190. Download
- Kotwal, PC; Manmohan Yadav; MD Omprakash; BL Menaria and D Dugaya. 2006. Annotated Bibliography on Sustainable Forest Management and Forest Certification - 2006. ISBN: 81-7969-036-09. Pages 1-186.
- Yadav, Manmohan and Dharmendra Dugaya. 2013. Non-timber forest products certification in India: opportunities and challenges. Environment, Development and Sustainability, SPRINGER 15: 567–586, DOI 10.1007/s10668-012-9393-1.
- Yadav, Manmohan, Dharmendra Dugaya and Kalpana Basera. 2011. Opportunities and Challenges for NWFP Certification in India. Paper presented in International conference on 'Managing NWFPs for Sustained Livelihoods' organized at RCVP Noronha Academy of Administration & Management, Bhopal during 17-19 December 2011.
- Yadav, Manmohan. 2011. Forest Certification: Opportunities and Challenges for India. Invited Paper for the 1st Indian Forest Congress (IFC) organized at ICFRE, Dehradun during 22-25 November 2011.
- Yadav, Manmohan and Dharmendra Dugaya. 2010. Timber Forest Certification Scenario: An Overview. In K Jayaraman, M Balasundaran, KV Bhat and CN Krishnankutty (Eds) Production and Marketing of Teakwood: Future Scenarios (pp 30-47). TEAKNET: Lumiere Printers, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
- Yadav, Manmohan; PC Kotwal; MD Omprakash; BL Menaria and Dharmendra Dugaya. 2008. Forest certification of planted forest based on the experience of Bhopal-India process. Processing and Marketing of Teak wood products of planted forests organized by KFRI in collaboration with ITTO, MoEF, IUFRO during 25-28 Sept. 2007. Pp 132-145.
- Manmohan Yadav & Kalpana Basera, 2013. Status of Forest Products Production and Trade. Working paper series 2013/01, CSFM & FC IIFM at http://iifm.ac.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/IIFMWP-13-10-01.pdf
- Manmohan Yadav (2012), "The future we want but the present we do not want to commit", IIFM Communiqué. April 2012 (faculty column) p3-4.
Training Programmes Conducted
- 2017: MoEF&CC, GoI sponsored compulsory course on ‘Forest Certification in Indian Context' for the officers of Indian Forest Service at IIFM during September 18-22, 2017. Details
- 2017. ICFRE Specialized HRD training course on ‘Economics and Marketing of Forest Produce’ for the Scientists of ICFRE at IIFM, Bhopal February 13-17 2017. Details
- 2016: MoEF&CC, GoI sponsored compulsory course on ‘Forest Certification in Indian Context' for the officers of Indian Forest Service at IIFM during 05-09 December 2016. Details
- 2016: Training of trainers on ‘Sustainable harvesting (collection), certification and marketing of NTFPs’. ToT organized at Renukoot on 3rd October 2016.
- 2016: MoEF&CC, GoI sponsored Training-workshop on ‘Forest Certification: A Marketing Tool for Sustainable Forest Management' for the officers of Indian Forest Service at IIFM during September 06-07, 2016. Details
- 2016: Training of trainers on ‘Sustainable harvesting (collection), certification and marketing of NTFPs’. ToT organized at Bahraich on 21 July 2016.
- 2016: Training of trainers on ‘Sustainable harvesting (collection), certification and marketing of NTFPs’. ToT organized at Lalitpur on 11 April 2016.
- 2016: MoEF&CC, GoI sponsored compulsory course on 'Management of NTFPs for Sustainable Development' for the officers of Indian Forest Service at IIFM during January 18-22, 2016. Details
- 2015: Capacity building programme on FM & CoC Certification for Barghat and Lamta plantation divisions of MPRVVN Ltd at Barghat during 30 Nov to 2 Dec 2015
- 2015: Sensitization Workshop for Senior Managers of Madhya Pradesh Rajya Van Vikas Limited on "FSC FM & CoC Certification for Plantation Divisions" on 21 November 2015 at Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.
- 2015: MoEF&CC, GoI, sponsored Compulsory Course on 'Forest Certification' for the officers of Indian Forest Service at IIFM during 16-20 November 2015. Details
- 2015: 3 days MDP for executives of NHDC on ""Managing in Changing and Dynamic Business Environment" at IIFM Bhopal 12-14 March 2015.
- 2015: Technical Orientation Programme-cum-Business Meet for Forest Officers of NABARD and MPRVVN at IIFM, Bhopal 09-11 February 2015.
- 2014: MDP on "NTFP: Value Addition & Marketing Strategies for Income Generation" at IIFM Bhopal, 02-06 September 2014.
- 2013: One Week Compulsory Training Course for the officers of Indian Forest Service on "Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management and Forest Certification" at IIFM Bhopal, December 16-20, 2013. Details
- 2013: Specialized HRD training course on ‘Forest Certification’ for the Scientists of ICFRE at IIFM, Bhopal August 26-30, 2013. Details
- 2013: Capacity building Training-cum-Workshop for Field staff of Tripura Forest Development and Plantations Corporation Limited on "FSC FM and CoC Certifications for Rubber and Bamboo Plantations" on 16 April 2013 at Paratiya, Tripura.
- 2013: Capacity building Training-cum-Workshop for Field staff of Tripura Forest Development and Plantations Corporation Limited on "FSC FM and CoC Certifications for Rubber and Bamboo Plantations" on 11 April 2013 at Nagacherri, Tripura.
- 2013: MoEF, GoI, sponsored Compulsory Course on 'Forest Certification: Opportunities and Challenges' for the officers of Indian Forest Service at IIFM during February 18-22, 2013. Details
- 2012: MoEF, GoI, sponsored Training workshop on 'Forest Certification: A Marketing Tool for Sustainable Forest Management' for the officers of Indian Forest Service at IIFM during September 13-14, 2012. Details
- 2012: 'Workshop-cum-Capacity Building Training for TFDPC Ltd Personnel' during May 30 - June 03, 2012.
- 2012: Four days Training Programme on "Forest Based Micro Enterprise for Livelihood Generation" for RCNAEB, MOEF, at IIFM, Bhopal GoI March 20-23, 2012
- 2011: Compulsory Refresher Course for the officers of Indian Forest Service conducted at IIFM during December 12-16, 2011 on 'Forest Certification: A Marketing Tool for Sustainable Forest Management'. The MoEF, GoI, sponsored the refresher course. Details
- 2010: Training Workshop of IFS Officers on the topic "Forest Certification: A marketing Tool for SFM during 09-10 December 2010. The MoEF, GoI, sponsored the training workshop. Details
- 2010: One week MDP on "Market Survey and Basics of Retailing" at IIFM Bhopal, March 22-26, 2010.
- 2009: 3 days MDP on "TOT for Developing Business Plan for important NTFPs based Enterprise in TRIPURA" Sponsored by NTFP Centre for Excellence, JICA Project, TRIPURA, Dec 17-19, 2009.
- 2009: One-week compulsory training of IFS Officers on the topic "Forest Certification: A marketing Tool for SFM scheduled during 14-18 September 2009. The MoEF, GoI, sponsored the training. Details
- 2009: 3 days MDP on "TOT for Mahua Flower - Good Collection, Drying & Storage Practices; Processing; and Marketing" at CG MFP Federation, Raipur, April 09-11, 2009.
- 2009: Conducted 2nd One-week compulsory training programme for IFS Officers during 9-13 February 2009 on Forest Certification for SFM sponsored by MoEF, GoI. Details
- 2008: 3 days MDP on Forest Certification for SFM during June 25-27, 2008.
- 2008: 3 days MDP on "TOT for Mahua Collection, Processing and Marketing" at IIFM Bhopal, March 1-3, 2008.
- 2007: Conducted One-week compulsory training programme for IFS officers on Forest Certification for SFM during 15-19 October 2007 sponsored by MoEF, GoI. Details
- 2007: 5 days MDP on "MAP Management - Harvesting, Processing, Trade and Marketing" at IIFM Bhopal, April 09 - 13, 2007.
- 2007: 5 days MDP on "Competitive Marketing Strategies for Forest Products in the Changing Environment" at IIFM Bhopal, January 30 – February 03, 2007.
- 2006: 5 days MDP on "NTFP Management under NAP, Harvesting, Processing and Marketing" at IIFM Bhopal, December 04 – 08, 2006.
- 2006: Conducted 3 days MDP on Forest Certification for SFM during November 29- Dec 1, 2006.
- 2005: 3 days EDP on "Managing green Consumerism" at IIFM Bhopal, July 25-27, 2005.
- 2005: 3 days MDP on "Institutional Finance for Afforestation for IFS officers of Orissa Forest Department" at Bhubaneswar, April 19-21, 2005.
- 2005: 5 days MDP as Programme Director on "Marketing of Forestry Products in Changing Market Scenario" at IIFM Bhopal, January 17-21, 2005.
- 2004: 5 days MDP on "Micro-Finance: Dovetailing with NTFP based Micro-Enterprises with specific reference to Himachal Pradesh " at IIFM Bhopal, October 25-29, 2004.
- 2004: 5 days MDP on "Data Analysis for Marketing Decisions" at IIFM Bhopal, February 02-06, 2004.
Conference / Workshops Organised
- 2017: Organized an International Conference on ‘Awareness and Dissemination of Indigenous of Traditional Knowledge for sustainability of NTFP Resources’ during 15-16 December 2017. The conference organized by MP MFP Federation in association with IIFM at Lal Parade Ground, Bhopal as part of International Herbal fair 2017.
- 2013: Organised Key Stakeholder Consultation on 'Approach towards Development of NWFP Standards for Forest Certification in India' at IIFM on March 19, 2013.
- 2009: Launch Workshop of Ecotourism SMFE (Small and Medium Forest Based Enterprises) at Kathotiya in FDA Sehore, Madhya Pradesh on Feb 5, 2009 sponsored by NEAB, MOEF, Government of India.
- 2008: Launch Workshop of MAP Processing & Marketing SMFE (Small and Medium Forest Based Enterprises) at Rehti in FDA Sehore, Madhya Pradesh on Nov. 09, 2008 sponsored by NEAB, MOEF, Government of India.
- 2008: Launch Workshop of Budhni Woodcraft SMFE (Small and Medium Forest Based Enterprises) at Budhni in FDA Sehore, Madhya Pradesh on March 31, 2008 sponsored by NEAB, MOEF, Government of India Launch WS of Budhni SMFE.
- 2007: Workshop on "Building Managerial Capacity of Key Stakeholders of FDA in Tribal Dominated Areas of Chhattisgarh" during January 15-16, 2007 at Raipur".
- 2005: Organised International workshop on SFM- C & I.
- 2005: 8th SMF Annual Convention & Conference on "Strategic issues in Development Organizations and Corporate Social Responsibility", at IIFM, Bhopal, May 09-11, 2005 under the aegis of Strategic Management Forum.
- 2004: Workshop on "National Workshop for developing modalities for involving Private sector in PPP for Afforestation of Degraded forests" at IIFM, Bhopal, October 18-19, 2004.
- 2003: Organized Workshop Sensitization on Forest Certification was at Agartala, Tripura State in July 2004.
- 2002: Organized a workshop on Forest certification and labeling in association with Madhya Pradesh Forest department on November 9, 2002.
- 2000: Organized Regional workshop for Dry Zone Asia.
Research & Consulting Projects undertaken
- 2016-17: IKEA supported study on ‘Mapping of preferred wood species’ in nine States Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh including Telangana, Bihar, Odisha, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tripura.
- 2015 - Continue: Assignment on 'Facilitation for FM & CoC Certification for plantation divisions of MPRVVN Ltd' (Madhya Pradesh Rajya Van Vikas Nigam Limited).
- 2012-17: UP-PFM (JICA funded) project has commissioned study to IIFM on 'NTFP Marketing and certification' in three forest divisions in UP.
- May 2012 - June 2013: Consulting Assignment on 'Facilitation for Rubber Wood Certification (FM, CoC & Use of Logo) for TFDPC Ltd' (Tripura Forest Development and Plantation Corporation Limited).
- 2012-13: Field validation of draft standards for certification of Non-Timber Forest Products. The study was proposed to field validate draft set of standards for forest certification of selected NTFPs of central India developed in the year 2011 in the States of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh. The field validation of draft NTFP Standards were undertaken by selection of one forest division each in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. The NTFP’s availability, utilization, commercialization, exploitation, management practices, policies and tenure systems in different parts of India have high diversity and variability. Therefore, a system for certification of NTFPs is much more complex than for timber. Thus, when applying forest certification standards for NTFPs, the habit and phenology of NTFP producing species together with the ecological, economic and socio-cultural aspects must be considered. Considering this broad approach in mind categorization of NTFPs in three categories for the purpose of developing certification standards were proposed. These include - i) NTFPs whose underground parts are used such as Nagarmotha; ii) NTFPs whose fruits/flowers/seeds are used such as Aonla, Harra and Achar; iii) NTFPs whose leaf are used such as Tendu Patta. The understanding was shared with a group of experts in this highly specialized subject area. The experts in a stakeholder consultative meeting on 19th March 2013 after through deliberations agreed to retain all the 4 Principles suggested in the earlier study. However, modifications (addition or deletion) were suggested at the criteria level under each principle. The study was sponsored by IIFM.
- 2010-11: IIFM supported pilot study for developing standards for certification of Non-Timber Forest Products. The draft set of standards for forest certification of selected NTFPs of central India developed based on field conditions, consultation with various stakeholders and the developments at National and International level. The draft set of standards consists of 4 Principles, 17 Criteria and 55 Indicators. The purpose of these standards is to ensure that the raw material, used by forest enterprises and communities to manufacture their products is obtained from forests that are managed taking into consideration social benefits and environmental protection, while seeking to attain long term economic viability.
- 2002-2004: IIFM was commissioned a study on Study in Northeast, Training in Certification and Auditing and Certification of forest areas by the Development Commissioner, Ministry Textiles, GoI.
- 2001: A project on "Operational Strategy for Sustainable Forestry Development with Community Participation in India" has been commissioned by ITTO (Initially 6 FMUs in MP and Chhattisgarh then 2 FMUs each in states of Orissa, Gujarat, Sikkim and Kerala also included).
- Proposed framework of National Forest Certification in India to the Government of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests.
- Proposed revision in the National Working Plan Code 2014 for incorporation of C&I approach to Sustainable Forest Management.
Expert Group Meetings /Workshops/Conferences/Seminars attended
- 2017: Participated in FSC 2nd Global Social Chamber Membership Meeting 01-14 February 2017, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
- 2013: Represented Government of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests in Expert Group Meeting on Sharing of Best Practices of SFM in South Asia organized by SAARC Forestry Centre (SFC) from Nov 26-28, 2013 at Thimphu Bhutan.
- 2008: Malaysia, Kuala-Lumpur and Negeri Sembilan (May 2008) as Coordinator of Study tour on Forest Certification to Malaysia under IIFM-ITTO project on SFM.
- Member, National Forest Certification Committee, GoI, MOEFCC
- Member, FSC National Standard Development Group INDIA
- 2002: Represented Government of India in ITTO’s Workshop on ‘Phased Approaches to Certification for Asia-Pacific’, Jakarta, INDONESIA January 15-16, 2002.
C & I India Update
Forest Certification for Responsible Forestry